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  Izdanje: 07-07-2019

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Porodica - datum: 2019-06-30 SPECIALIST OF DERMATOVENEROLOGY DR MARIJA TOMOVIĆ ADVISES FOR &qUOT;DAN&qUOT; HOW TO PREVENT, RECOGNIZE AND TREAT THE MOST FREQUENT FUNGAL INFECTIONS OF SKIN AND NAILS Fungal infections, a temptation that lurks in the summer
Increased humidity, sweating, wearing closed shoes and clothing from synthetic materials, as well as inadequate hygiene can lead to fungal infections of the skin and nails, diseases that often occur in the summer. Statistics show that athletes, elderly people, people with impaired immunity, and small children represent vulnerable groups who should particularly take care of hygiene during warm summer days.
We talked with the specialist of dermatology, Dr Marija Tomović, about the most common summer fungal skin infections, prevention and treatment.
- A warm and humid environment is ideal for the development of fungal infections that persist and require long-term treatment - says Dr Tomović. - In addition to sweating, going to the pools and wild beaches increases the risk of illness. Fungal infection most often attacks the arms of the skin layer, but they can attack the entire surface of the skin, as well as the mucous membrane and nails, where it is most difficult to remove them. It is important for any dermatologist to find out whether it is an invasive or non-invasive infection, or to determine whether it is a pathological process that is limited to rosy structures or involves all layers of skin and surrounding tissues.
● What symptoms reveal the presence of fungi?
- Symptoms always depend on the site affected by the infection and the type of fungi that have settled down. Candida albicans most commonly occur in fractures such as blisters, diaphragms and the area under the breast, followed by redness, irritation, and burning sensation. The causes are increased by sweating and wearing synthetic materials. Symptoms can be alleviated by using the most common powder for children, but it will not cure the problem at the same time. The therapy for this type of fungal infection involves a combination of antimitotic and corticosteroid-based creams. With fat people who are very sweaty and do not wear natural materials during the summer, fungi appear on the back. Saprophyte, fungi that normally live on our skin in a very small amount, begin to melt and create red or brown spots, and then damage the pigment and create whitish spots.
● What does clinical practice show, because of which fungal skin infections patients are most often referred to a dermatologist?
- The most common fungal infection, which can occur not only in the summer, but also during the rest of the year, is the so-called athletic foot. Statistics show that this problem occurs with 70 percent of people, especially people whose feet are very sweaty or those who often wear sneakers. The infection is manifested on soles, feet and skin between the fingers in the form of flaking, redness and the appearance of blisters. If the infection is caught and the nail changes colour of the nail in yellow or brown, the thickening of the nails, splitting on the layers, and sometimes the nails partially fall off. The causative agent of the infection is a fungus from the group of dermatophytes, a parasite that survives on parts of dead skin that the body constantly discards. These fungi have a particular tendency to attack the joint between the fourth and fifth fingers on the leg, and that is the place from where the infection usually begins. Also, fungi on this part of the feet are easy to reproduce, because the circulation is weaker, due to the less oxygen and nutrients that come through the blood. Athletic foot should be treated with antimitotic in the form of cream or solution, once or twice a day for four to five weeks, and for people with dry skin, the treatment may last from six to eight weeks. In parallel with antimiycotics in the form of sprays or creams, antimycotics in the form of tablets are also used.
● Are nail changes always a sign of fungal infection?
- No, but people who have psoriasis or a lichen planus are more susceptible to fungal infections, because their nail health has been damaged by primary illness and you can often notice changes in the shape of the scab and thickening of the nail plate. Onychomycosis is also common with older people, especially men, and in particular diabetic patients, persons with impaired circulation or immunodeficiency. In all of these cases, the nail plate can become durable and waste in layers. In order to determine the existence of a fungal infection of the nail, it is necessary to take a nail test and make an analysis. Treatment includes the use of antimycotics that can be applied locally, systemically and in combination with these two methods. Recently, the use of diode laser in the treatment of fungal infections of the nail was also approved.
S. M.
Prevention measures
- Keep constant hygiene and have a shower at least twice a day while heat is on, - recalls Dr Tomović. - Wear cotton or linen clothes, do not use towels or share your towel with others. Wear open shoes, and during the stay at the pool or the beach, be sure to stay all the time in the slippers. If you notice redness or any other changes on the skin or on your nails, make sure to tell a dermatologist and do not use corticosteroid creams, fats and solvents on your own, because you can "mask" the problem so that the infection persists much longer.
According to the "Dan" interlocutor, during the treatment of fungal skin and nail infections, be sure to wash the socks at a temperature of 90 degrees Celsius, and disinfect the footwear you wore or, if possible, wash in the washing machine at 90 degrees. Put shoes, shoes and boots for at least seven days in the freezer, and do not wear them until you are completely cured, as the infection would not return.

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